Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
About the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia extends over an area of about 2,250,000 square kilometers in southwest Asia, between latitudes 46 22 16 and 32 14 00 00 north, and between longitudes, 34 29 30 and 55 40 00 00 east and is bordered to the east by the Arabian Gulf, the United Arab Emirates, the State of Qatar and the Kingdom of Bahrain, to the north: the State of Kuwait, the Republic of Iraq and the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, and to the west: The Red Sea, and from the south: the Republic of Yemen and the Sultanate of Oman. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia represents about two-thirds of the area of the Arabian Peninsula, which is a vital geographical region important for its location as a bridge of land and sea communication between three blocks of land are the continents of the ancient world Asia, Africa, and Europe, it is part of the continent of Asia, and is separated from the continent of Africa only by the Red Sea, a narrow body of water, and it is close to the continent of Europe, which is separated from it by the Mediterranean Sea and its neighboring lands.
Topography: The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is characterized by a variety of terrain as a result of its vast area, successive geological developments, and significant climatic changes. Therefore, there are mountainous heights, plateaus, plains, valleys, and sand dunes in the Kingdom, and among the most important features of the terrain of the Kingdom are the following:
A- Coastal plains: The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia extends two coastal plains, the first in the west along the Red Sea from the east, and the other in the east along the Arabian Gulf from the west and amounting to The area covered by these two coasts is about 15,765 square kilometers, or about 0.8% of the Kingdom's area.
1- The coastal plain of the Red Sea: The coastal plain of the Red Sea, known as the Tihama Plain, extends along the Red Sea from north to south, from the Gulf of Aqaba and the border with the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan in the north, to the border with the Republic of Yemen in the south. The length of this plain is about 2400 kilometers. As for its breadth, it varies from one place to another; it fades when the mountainous heights reach the sea, as is the case in the north of Al-Wajh at the center of Zubaydah approximately south of the circle The width of 27 north, and may sometimes expand to reach 45 to 50 kilometers wide, as is the case in the Jazan region. The
rocks of this plain date back to the Neolithic periods (Sinozoe). It consists of continental and marine sediments and fragments, and some volcanic spills. Its surface is dotted with salt sabkhas, small sand dunes, and short valley streams, which descend from the western highlands towards the Red Sea. The coastline is generally of little definition, but contains many capes, bays or shrubs, and coral reefs. Close to the coast are also scattered with many islands of limited size, the most important of which are the Farasan Islands.
2- The coastal plain of the Arabian Gulf: The coastal plain of the Arabian Gulf in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia extends from its border with the State of Kuwait in the north, north of Ras Al-Khafji, until its border with the State of Qatar at the bottom of Doha Salwa. This plain then extends again for a short distance after the Qatar Peninsula around Doha Duwayhen, south of Khor Al Udeid. The length of this plain with its curves is more than 1,000 kilometers. It is mostly confined between the Suman Plateau in the west and the Arabian Gulf in the east. Its breadth varies From one place to another, ranging from 60 kilometers north of Khafji, to 130 kilometers west of Dammam.Like the western coastal plain, the rocks of this plain date back to the Neolithic periods (Sinozoe). They consist of marine sediments and continental fragments. Overall, it is characterized by its flatness and low altitude above sea level, slowly rising towards the west at a rate of one meter per kilometer. Therefore, it is spread wide salt sabkha, especially near the waters of the Gulf, and it consists of a mixture of salts, silt, clay and sand. Its undulating surface is covered by fixed sand bedding to the north of Jubail city, and to the south. From it, the sands of Al-Bayda, which consists of sand and moving sand dunes, expand towards the south until it connects south of the Hofuf oasis with the sands of Jafoura. The places not covered by sand and sabakh are made up of barren calcareous rocks from the Eocene and Miocene and Pliocene eras from the tertiary geological time. The coastline is generally very lignified due to the shallow waters of the Gulf, so there are many capes, small bays and coral reefs. Small islands are also littered nearby, most of which may sometimes be submerged.
B- Western Highlands:
One of the most important features of the terrain in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is the western mountainous heights that extend along the Red Sea, from the border with the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan in the north to the border with the Yemen Arab Republic in the south, with a length of approximately 1550 kilometers. Their width ranges from a few kilometers to 140 kilometers. They are generally higher in the south and north than in the center. There are a number of high mountain peaks whose height exceeds 2000 m above sea level, The summit of Jabal Soudah in western Abha is its highest peak, at 3,015 meters above sea level.The
western highlands are parallel mountain ranges formed as a result of the violent refractive land movements that occurred during the third geological time, which led to the separation of the Arabian plate from the African shield, so these heights descend vertically peacefully and suddenly towards the Red Sea, and gradually inland. The refractive movements have led to the formation of longitudinal valleys that permeate these chains from north to south or vice versa, and the transverse valleys, some of which formed fractures, also extend from these heights to the coastal plain adjacent to the Red Sea. Or to the interior where its water is often lost in sandy seas.The rocks of these heights, some of which date back to the Precambrian period, consist of igneous rocks such as granite, and metamorphic such as gneiss and schist, which are characterized by their hardness and resistance to erosion, which are covered by volcanic spillages (Harrat) dating back to the late third geological time, and the fourth geological time, and the stomachs of valleys and some of the wide basins in them are covered with sedimentary rocks that were formed later.
1- The western highlands are divided longitudinally from south to north as follows:
2- Sarawat Mountains: It represents the southern section of these heights and extends from the Kingdom's borders with the Republic of Yemen in the south, to just before the city of Taif in the north, and it is the highest among these sections, ranging in height from 800 to 3000 m above sea level.
The Hijaz Mountains: It represents the middle section of these heights, and extends from the north of Makkah Al-Mukarramah to the latitude of 28 north, and it is less high and agglomerated than the Sarawat Mountains and the Madin Mountains, and the heat and volcanic cones prevail, and its average height is 1200 m above sea level.
3- Madin Mountains: It represents the northern section of these heights, extends to the north of the latitude of 28 north, and contains some complex mountain ranges and high mountain peaks, some of which are more than 2000 and 2500 m above sea level.
The southern part of the western highlands (Sarawat) in particular is divided from west to east into three main ranges: 1- The range of coastal hills
: It is known locally in _ some parts _ transverse and in other parts Balhqou, and these heights start from the plain in the form of low hills soon to increase their height gradually as they progress towards the east until they meet with the high altitudes, and this meeting area is called in some parts "Al-Habata". Despite the relative decline of this range However, it includes high isolated mountains that may reach the height of - in some areas - the height of the high heights to the east.
2- The scope of the issue: (the collection of the chest) It is the western slopes of the high altitudes, which descend steeply towards the west and with some overtaking added to this range of high isolated mountains in the previous range. The version extends between the water dividing line and the coastal ridge range. From it starts countless transverse valleys whose waters flow west towards the Red Sea, and in this range, they are narrow and have high sharp sides.
3- The range of high altitudes: It starts from the water division line, where the valleys head west towards Tihama or east towards the interior plain areas, where this range ends in the western parts of these plains. The height of this range ranges between 1800-2400 meters above sea level and the height of some peaks may exceed 3000 meters above sea level.
C- Harrat: The main Harrat in the Kingdom covers about 69,870 square kilometers, or about 3.4% of its area. It occupies large areas to the east of the western highlands and between the western plateaus, around approximately 40 east longitude from north to south. It is a flood of basalt and volcanic melts dating back to the late tertiary geological time, and the fourth geological time, and its altitude ranges between 1100-1300 m above sea level.
The most important of them are from north to south Al-Hurra, Al-Raha, Awerid, Harrat Jabal Risha, Lenir, Khaybar, Hatim, Harma, Rahat, Keshb, Hudn, Al-Nawasif, and Al-Baqum. Harrat al-Hitima, the only one not located near the 40th meridian, extends east of Jebel Salma in the Hail region.
Limited areas are also scattered in the coastal plain of the Red Sea, the most important of which are ponds and al-Qahma to the south of Al-Qunfudah. and Harrat Al-Shaqa to the east of the city of Umluj.
D- Plateaus: The plateaus cover more than half of the area of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, where the western plateaus extend to the east of the western highlands. The Najd plateau occupies large areas of the center of the Kingdom, while the Hammad and Hujrah plateaus extend in the far north and the Suman plateau in its east. In general, these plateaus gradually descend from west to east or north and stand out with isolated plains and rock peaks. These plateaus cut through hundreds of dry valleys that extend with the general direction of slope and that have formed in Previous periods, these plateaus are as follows:
1- Western plateaus: The western plateaus extend to the east of the
western highlands, and are part of the Arabian Shield with ancient igneous and metamorphic arctic rocks dating back to the Precambrian era. It consists of the following plateaus Hasma Plateau
1- 1: The Hasma Plateau extends in the northwest of the Kingdom, from the borders of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan in the north, to Harrat Al-Raha in the south, and from the Tabuk depression in the east to the Madin Mountains in the west. They generally slope towards the east and north. Its altitude ranges from 800 to 1000 m above Sea level.
1.2 Hejaz Plateau: The Hejaz Plateau is located to the southeast of the Hasma Plateau. It extends from the Tabiq Mountains in the north to Harrat Khaybar in the south and from the great Nafud in the east to the western highlands in the west. It generally slopes towards the Tabuk Basin in the center and towards the north and east. Its altitude ranges from 900 to 1100 m above sea level.
1.3 Asir Plateau: The Asir Plateau extends from Harati Al-Nawasif and Al-Buqum in the north to the Najran Plateau and the Sarawat Mountains in the south, and from the Najd Plateau in the east to the Sarawat Mountains in the west. It generally slopes north and east, ranging from 1200 to 1600 m above sea level.
1.4 Najran Plateau: The Najran Plateau extends from the plateaus of Najd and Asir in the north to Wadi Najran in the south, and from the sands of the Empty Quarter in the east to the Sarawat heights in the west. They generally slope eastwards. It ranges between 1100-1500 m above sea level.
2- Najd Plateau: Najd Plateau, the largest plateau in the Kingdom. It occupies large areas in its center, from Al-Nafud Al-Kabir in the north to the Empty Quarter in the south, and from Al-Dahna in the east to the western plateaus in the west. It is divided into two different parts in terms of geological composition, the first is the western one, which is known as Alia Najd, and it extends from the Shammar Mountains in the north to the south of Wadi Al-Dawasir in the south, and from Nafudi Al-Sir and Al-Dahi in the east to Al-Harrat and the western plateaus in the west. It is part of the Arab Shield with rocks The ancient igneous and metamorphic arcade, which dates back to the Precambrian era, is characterized by its hardness and resistance to erosion, and stands out in the form of plateaus and rocky peaks, such as the Yoke Mountains, the Dahlan Mountains and the Al-Alam Mountains. They generally slope towards the south and east. Its altitude ranges between 800 – 1200 m above sea level.The surface of this section of the plateau of Najd is cut by a large number of valleys and water paths that extend with the general direction of slope, such as the valleys of Rama, Bisha, Tathleeth, Ranyah, Turbah and others.The second section, which is the east, is known as Lower Najd, and it extends from Al-Nafud Al-Kabir in the north to the Empty Quarter in the south, and from Al-Sir and Al-Dahi in the west to Al-Dahna in the east. Lower Najd generally slopes eastwards. It ranges from 600 to 1100 m above sea level. It is part of the Arabian shelf, so it consists of sedimentary rocks whose layers follow successively from west to east from the Cambrian period to the Eocene period. In this section, the rocky ledges that were formed as a result of the different hardness of its rocks, which extend in the form of arcs from north to south, the most important of which is the edge of Tuwaiq, which extends for approximately 1200 kilometers, from the north of the city of Zulfi in the north to the sands of the Empty Quarter in the south, and the surface of this section of the plateau of Najd is cut by a large number of valleys and water paths that extend with the general direction of slope, such as the valleys of Al-Ruma, Al-Dawasir, Najran, Hanifa, Al-Sulay, Nisah and others.
3- Al-Hammad and Al-Hujrah plateaus: The Al-Hammad and Al-Hujrah plateaus extend in the far north of the Kingdom, between the borders with the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan in the north and Al-Nafud Al-Kabir in the south, and the borders with the Republic of Iraq in the east, Harrat Al-Hurra and Wadi Al-Sarhan in the west. The height of the Hammad plateau ranges from 650 to 900 m above sea level and the Hujrah plateau ranges from 400 to 560 m above sea level. The surface of these plateaus is cut by valleys and water paths, and generally orients towards the northeast.
4- Al-Suman Plateau: The Al-Suman Plateau extends from the borders with the State of Kuwait and the Republic of Iraq in the north to the Empty Quarter desert in the south, with a length of approximately 1000 km, and from the coastal plain of the Arabian Gulf in the east to the sands of Al-Dahna in the west. Their width varies from approximately 80 to 250 kilometers. It gradually descends from west to east with a height ranging from 25 meters at its eastern edge to 400 meters at its western edge. Some of its parts take different names such as Dabdeba, Steel and Rabida. There are some gravel plains in the Suman plateau such as the plain of Al-Dabdeba, whose surface is covered with gravel and gravel, and the surface of the Al-Suman Plateau, especially in its central and northern parts, is characterized by the presence of Al-Dahul, some of which are more than 50 meters deep, which are gaps resulting from the melting of its limestone rocks, and there are many lowlands in the Suman plateau, as well as Al-Khabari, Al-Rawdat and others, as the surface of the plateau cuts many reefs and valleys, the most important of which are Al-Batin, Al-Sarar, Wadi Al-Maa and Al-Sahba.
E- Sand formations: Sand formations cover about 36.9% of the area of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, covering about 746567 square kilometers. It is found in the form of sand dunes with an area of about 688,852 square kilometers, sand dunes interspersed with some flat plains with an area of about 36,478 square kilometers, sand mattresses with tamping with an area of about 11,779 square kilometers, and sand mattresses with an area of about 9,458 square kilometers. Sand formations, especially sand dunes, are with highlands Western is one of the most prominent and clearest topographical phenomena. These formations consist of loose sand formed by surface water and air erosion that has led to its accumulation in basin areas where it falls below the general level of the earth's surface, or in protected areas parallel to rocky ledges where wind speed drops and discharges its load of sand. Most of the sand formations in the Kingdom due to the nature of their composition are concentrated on the Arabian shelf and in the coastal plain of the Red Sea, in addition to very limited areas on the Arabian Shield. Among the most prominent sand formations in the Kingdom are the following:
1 Main sand formations:1 1 Al-Nafud Al-Kabir: Al-Nafud Al-Kabir is located in the north of the Kingdom, and the basin occupied by its sand is surrounded by the heights of the plateaus of Al-Hammad and Al-Hujrah in the north, the plateau of Najd and the mountains of Aja and Salma in the south, the plateau of Al-Hujrah in the east, and the Hijaz plateau in the west. It covers approximately 65,504 square kilometers, or about 3.2% of the Kingdom's area, and thus represents the second place in terms of area among the sand formations in the Kingdom after the Empty Quarter. It is related to the great Nafud in the east of Dahna, and in the south of it Oriental we run out of appearance. The Great Nafud has a variety of sand dunes but longitudinal, crescent and star dunes are the most common. Some dunes, especially stellar ones, may reach a height of 200 meters above the level of the adjacent flat lands.
12 Al-Dahna: Al-Dahna extends in the form of an arc for a distance of approximately 1200 kilometers, from Al-Nafud Al-Kabir in the north to the Empty Quarter in the south. It covers an area of about 35,466 square kilometers, or about 1.8% of the area of the Kingdom. Dahna consists of chains of parallel longitudinal dunes or veins that run from northwest to southeast north of the 24th parallel and from northeast to southwest south. These veins are separated by flat lands called one of them The name Khub or Joe. The width and height of these dunes from neighboring lands vary from place to place. The width of the veins of Dahna and the flat lands between them ranges from 20 to 80 kilometers, and some may reach a height of 170 meters above the level of the adjacent flat lands. Al Dahna has a variety of sand dunes but longitudinal dunes are the most common.
1-3 The Empty Quarter: The Empty Quarter occupies a large area in the southeast of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between the plateaus of Najd and Suman, the sands of Dahna and Jafoura in the north, the borders with the Sultanate of Oman and the Yemen Arab Republic in the south, and the borders with the Sultanate of Oman and the United Arab Emirates in the east and the Najran plateau in the west. It covers approximately 486245 square kilometers of the Kingdom's territory, or about 24% of its area. It is up to 1200 km long between longitudes 30 44 and 30 56 The surface of the Empty Quarter is covered by multiple forms of sand dunes, some fixed, others mobile, some crescent and others longitudinal domes or compound, and in the Empty Quarter there are some sabakhs such as Sabkha Abu al-Rus and um al-Samim.
1_4 Nafuda Jafoura and White: The area of Nafoudi Jafoura and Bayda is about 53,637 square kilometers, or about 2.7% of the area of the Kingdom. The Jafoura Nafud extends in the form of a sandy tongue to the east of the Suman plateau from Uqair in the north to the northern edges of the Empty Quarter near Yebreen in the south. This tongue narrows in the north so that its width does not exceed 30 kilometers, but it expands towards the south until it connects to the sands of the Empty Quarter, where it reaches about 100 kilometers. Meter. The sands of Al-Jafoura consist of different shapes such as Al-Hilaliyah, Al-Qabbiya and sand mattresses, and it is also found between the dunes here and there Al-Sabakh.As for Nafud Al-Bayda, it extends from the northwest of Jubail to Al-Uqair, where it is connected to the sands of Al-Jafoura, and perhaps its name Al-Bayda is due to the color of its white sand, and it is similar to the sands of Al-Jafoura in terms of prevailing shapes and size.
2 Small sand formations: In addition to the main sand formations referred to above, there are many limited sand dunes that extend parallel to the rocky galleries in the center of the Kingdom, or around the banks of major valleys. On the coastal plains, a combined area of about 105715 square kilometers, or about 5.2% of the Kingdom's area. Among the most important of these small sand formations are Al-Mazhar, Al-Thawairat, Al-Malha, Qunifida, Al-Dahi, Al-Sir, Al-Ariq and the veins of Subai.
Climate: Large parts of Saudi Arabia are located within the huge tropical desert belt that stretches from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to the Thar Desert in India in the east. The Tropic of Cancer passes around the middle of its territory. The drought prevailed in most parts of the Kingdom by its vast area devoid of water bodies such as rivers and lakes, and the Arabian Gulf and the Red Sea are narrow seas whose impact is limited to their neighboring coasts, in addition to the extension of the western highlands and huge sandy deserts that prevent climatic influences. Most of the interior parts of the Kingdom are classified climatically within the dry climate, with the exception of the Empty Quarter and limited areas in the far northwest, which were classified as very dry areas, while the mountainous heights in the southwest prevail in the semi-arid climate. Temperatures also vary from place to place depending on the degree of width, terrain and distance from the Red Sea and the Arabian Gulf. Overall, temperatures rise from north to south, as a result of the impact of latitude and relative decline in overall elevation and the predominance of sand dunes. Temperatures also drop on the mountainous heights in the west of the Kingdom as a result of the rise. Rain in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, except for its southwest, is characterized by its few, where the annual average ranges between 30.9 mm in Al-Wajh and 144.2 mm in Qassim, and ranges in the southwest of the Kingdom between 112.4 mm in Jizan and 207.9 mm. In Khamis Mushait, it may reach 442.3 mm in high mountainous heights such as in Namas, and 368.5 mm in Baljurashi. Rain is characterized in most parts of the Kingdom except for its southwest, with its seasonality and difference in time, space and quantity, as it comes mostly from the depressions that cross over the region between September and May, so most of its rain falls in winter, early spring and late autumn, and the month of the rainy summit varies from place to place due to the nature of the cyclonic rains, and according to the path of the depressions from year to year. Another, and from one place to another, depending on the height, extension and orientation of the mountains in relation to the winds and rising air currents loaded with rainwater. Overall, rainfall decreases eastward, due to decreasing altitude, distance from the sea, and the effect of moisture-laden winds.
Vegetation: Approximately 2,250 plant species have been recorded in Saudi Arabia, of which 40 are endemic, 20% of which are rare. In terms of spatial distribution, plant life in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia contains many plant species that adapt in their distribution to a large extent with the terrain and types of soils prevailing in the Kingdom, which is greatly reflected in the abundance of moisture and food, and accordingly it is possible to observe plant species with limited spread and distribution in addition to widespread species. Plant species in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia have limited and precise habitats that have the appropriate conditions necessary for the growth of these plants. For example, it is noted that annual plants such as rubble
spp. plantago, lavender Horwoodia dicksonia, sorrel Rumex vesicarius, Besbice Anisosciadium lanatum, buttercup Picris babylonica, Semima Schismus barbatus, Erodium laciniatum , Lightning Asphodelus tenuifolius and shamrock Medicago Laciniata is characterized by its short roots and life cycle period, so it is concentrated in lands with relatively hard surface and those with sufficient water. These plants are less frequently found in rocky areas and sand dunes that are characterized by their continuous movement and do not retain sufficient moisture. Therefore, the presence of these plant species is limited to habitats that reach moisture and minerals that are washed from nearby high areas.
Helopeplis perfoliata, Saueda fruticosa and Seidlitzia rosmarinus are found in sabkha and depressions where highland water accumulates and salts are concentrated after evaporation of water. Its soils are characterized by a high concentration of dissolved salts. It is noted in these places that there are no annuals and most other perennial plants. When the salinity is very high, the vegetation cover is completely non-existent.
Which includes 14 species in the Kingdom, concentrated in environments suitable for their growth where sufficient heat and moisture are available most of the year. In the cold humid highlands in Asir, and the warm and humid areas such as the Tihama plain, and the stomachs of valleys, plains and kindergartens in which the water of the valleys flows and ends with water paths in the center and east of the Kingdom. Mangroves grow
Avicennia marina in small bays (jun) protected along the eastern coast of the Red Sea and the western coast of the Arabian Gulf. Hyphaene thebaica is widespread close to the Red Sea coast, especially in the northern and southern parts of the Tihama plain and the valleys that descend from the western highlands to the west, where moisture and warmth are available. Some plant species are distinguished in Saudi Arabia such as raft Salilcornicum Haloxylon and Thamam Panicum turgidum and Rhazya stricta are widespread and have a wide ecological range, so these plant species can be found in several habitats and microenvironments. Some other plant species are widespread in environments suitable for their growth, for example, Calligonum comosum , Artemisia monosperma and Stipagrostis drarii Wild animal life: There are several types of wild animals living in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, whose presence is due to their great ability to adapt to live in such a desert environment, and the number of terrestrial mammals in the Kingdom is about 79 species, five of which are extinct, while marine mammals number about 14 species, and the number of birds is about 432 species, of which 125 are endemic, while the number of birds Wade is about two million birds. As for reptiles, they number about 60 species, including 34 snakes, 9 turtles and 7 amphibians, and invertebrates are the most widespread species in the Kingdom, estimated at about 3,700 species, about 570 of which have been recorded as endemic species or species. Eight freshwater species numbered fish, five of which are endemic and 1,280 marine fish. The number of wild animals in the Kingdom has decreased, especially the large ones, such as: the Arabian Oryx, the Arabian Tahr, the Arabian Leopard, the mountain ibex, the Afri gazelle, the Reem gazelle, the Edmi gazelle, and many types of carnivores such as hyenas, wolves, wild cats, foxes, dugongs and sea turtles, and many species of birds of prey such as eagles, eagles, falcons and owls, since the fifties of the fourteenth century AH due to overfishing, but the establishment of reserves in several places in the Kingdom has contributed to the breeding of some endangered animals. Especially oryx, deer, ibex, ostriches and others.
Oil and mineral wealth: The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is one of the largest oil-producing countries in the world, with an average daily production between 8-9.4 million barrels per day (2006), and it occupies the first place among the countries of the world in terms of reserves, and there is natural gas that accompanies oil fields often in abundance in the Kingdom. In addition to oil and natural gas, the Kingdom has a rich mineral wealth, where about 5,000 mineral sites have been discovered, including 1,273 sites for precious metals and 1,172 sites for metals. Base (metallic minerals) and 2502 sites for nonmetallic minerals.
Population: The population of the Kingdom of Saudi
Arabia, according to the preliminary results of the General Population and Housing Census, which was implemented at midnight on Tuesday morning on the first Wednesday morning, the thirteenth of Jumada I 1431 AH corresponding to the twenty-seventh of April 2010 AD 27136977 people The number of Saudi citizens reached eighteen million seven thousand five hundred and seventy-six representing 68.94% of the total number of population. The number of males among Saudi citizens reached 9527173 individuals, or 50.93 % of the total number of citizens. The number of females reached 9,180,403, or 49.07% of the number of citizens. The number of non-citizen residents in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia on census day reached 8,429,401 people, representing 31.6% of the total population. The number of non-citizen males reached 5932974, representing 70.38% of the total residents. The number of female residents 2496427, or 29.62% of the total number of residents. The number of dwellings in the Kingdom on census day was 4,643,151.
The distribution of the population according to the administrative regions is as follows:
Agriculture: Agriculture has developed significantly in recent years and is of a dual nature. On the one hand, there are Bedouins with very little productivity and capitalism, and on the other hand, modern construction and equipment that required huge investments, the most important agricultural production: cereals 4.75 million tons, (the most important of which is wheat: 4 million tons, a large part of which is exported to the countries of the world and given part to the Arab countries), dates 548,000 tons, tomatoes 390,000 tons, watermelons 461,000 tons, melon 320,000 tons, grapes 100,000 tons, onions, potatoes, barley, citrus, Figs, white corn, sesame seeds.Cattle: cattle 216,000 head, camels 419,000 head, sheep 8.1 million head, goats 3.4 million head. Fishing is 50, 000 tons (pearls).
Industry: Industry in Saudi Arabia is related to oil and natural gas: refining and petrochemistry. The most important industrial products: tar cement, steel bars, ethylene, feed, ethylene glycol, industrial ethanol, ethylene dichlorode, stearin, caustic soda, nitrogen, citric acid, oxygen, melamine, and there is also seawater desalination and food industry. Seawater dessalting handles about 100 million square meters of water per year. This amount is negligible in front of the roughly 9,500 million cubic meters it provides annually. Groundwater consumed by agriculture. In parallel, the Kingdom is witnessing significant growth in the agro-food and consumer goods industries based on private capital.
Brief Information:Area: 2,250.000 square kilometers.Population: 22.673.538 people.Population density: 92.9 inhabitants per square kilometer.Capital: (4,260,000) people in (1425 AH).The most important cities: Jeddah (2,942,337) million people (1421 AH), Makkah Al-Mukarramah 1.3 million (1425 AH)Language: Arabic (official)Currency: Saudi Riyal
The Kingdom of Saudi
Arabia celebrates its National Day on the first day of Libra, corresponding to September 23 of each year, in commemoration of the unification and founding of the Kingdom by His Majesty King Abdulaziz bin Abdul Rahman Al Saud, may God have mercy on him, who declared the establishment of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in 1351 AH (1932 AD).
Flag of the Kingdom: The flag of the
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is rectangular in shape and its width is equal to two-thirds of its length, its floor is green and the certificate is in the middle (There is no god but Allah, Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah) in the Thuluth line and under it is an Arab sword whose fist is directed towards the flagpole painted in white, and it is not permissible to lower it or touch the ground or water in respect of the testimony written on itThe words of the national anthem: Hurry up for glory and glory *** Glory to the Creator of heaven and raise the beater green *** carrying the light that is written God is great. Oh my homeland, my homeland has lived the pride of Muslims. Long live the King for science and homeland. listen to National Anthem
The Kingdom's emblem: The emblem of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia consists of two cross-curved Arab swords topped by a palm tree, and the two swords symbolize strength, immunity and sacrifice, while the palm tree symbolizes vitality, growth and prosperityThe Kingdom's currency: The basic unit of the Kingdom's currency is the Saudi riyal, which is covered with gold and convertible into foreign currencies and is equal to 100 halalas, and the currency denominations are: paper: riyals, five riyals, ten riyals, twenty riyals, fifty riyals, one hundred riyals, two hundred riyals and five hundred riyals. Riyal, fifty halalas, twenty-five halalas, ten halalas, and five halalasThe US dollar is equivalent to 3.75 riyals (three riyals and seventy-five halalas) Measures and scales: The Kingdom adopts the metric system in measurement, and in the weight of kilograms.
Date: The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia officially relies on the Hijri calendar based on the migration of the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) from Mecca to Medina. The lunar Hijri year is 354 days divided into twelve lunar months
Public holidays: Public holidays in the Kingdom are as follows:Weekend: Thursday and FridayEid al-Fitr holiday: starts from the twenty-fifth of the month of Ramadan to the fifth of the month of Shawwal and its duration is from ten days to two weeks, according to its compatibility with the weekendEid al-Adha holiday: starts from the fifth of the month of Dhu al-Hijjah to the fifteenth of it, and the disruption of government departments and institutions during these holidaysMilitary branches: Land Force (Army), Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Force, National Guard, Ministry of Interior Forces (Civil Defense Forces)
The most important cities of the Kingdom
Makkah The city of Makkah is located on a latitude of 21 degrees and 27 minutes and a longitude of 39 degrees and 49 minutes, and it is the seat of the Emirate of Makkah Province and there is the Kaaba, the Grand Mosque, the Qibla of Muslims, the shrine of Abraham, peace be upon him, the holy sites (Mina, Arafat, Muzdalifah) um Al-Qura University, and the headquarters of the Organization of the Islamic Conference. Its population reached (1294168) people in 1425 AH.
Medina Medina is located in the northwest of the Kingdom at a latitude of 24 degrees and 28 minutes north and a longitude of 36 degrees and 39 minutes east, and it is the seat of the Emirate of Medina and its Prophet's Mosque, the tomb of the Prophet, may God bless him and grant him peace, the Islamic University, and the King Fahd Complex for the printing of the Qur'an. Its population reached (918889) people in 1425 AH.
Riyadh The city of Riyadh is located in the center of the Arabian Peninsula approximately, on a latitude of 2 4 degrees and 42 minutes and a longitude of 46 degrees and 42 minutes, and it is the seat of the Emirate of Riyadh Region, which is the capital of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, with all foreign ministries, embassies and consulates, Al-Yamamah Palace, Shura Council, Conference Palace, King Khalid International Airport, King Fahd International Stadium, Television Complex, Diplomatic Quarter, King Saud University, Imam Muhammad bin Saud Islamic University, Al-Hakam Palace Area, King Fahd Security College, College King Abdulaziz Al-Harbiyeh, King Faisal Air College, Specialty Hospital, King Khalid University Hospital, King Khalid Eye Hospital, and King Fahd National Guard Hospital. Its population reached (4087152) people in 1425 AH.
Jeddah is located on the eastern coastal plain of the Red Sea, which represents a natural extension of the coastal plain known as Tihama between latitudes 25 21 and 45 21 north and longitudes 5 29 and 20 39 east.
It is a major seaport, so its main and historical role was to be a port and entrance to the Holy Land, and a transit point for commercial movement, which made it at the present time the most important center for import and distribution in the Kingdom and therefore it controls most of the economic activity in it due to the presence of the sea and air port. Its population reached (2801481) people in 1425 AH.
Abha The city of Abha is located in the Asir region on a latitude of 18 degrees and 14 minutes, and a longitude of 24 degrees, and 30 minutes, and it is the headquarters of the Emirate of Asir Region, and it includes the most important resorts in the Kingdom, and it
is one of the tourist attractions, it has witnessed a great development in this field, and it has Abha Airport connected with the rest of the Kingdom's airports, Asir National Park, Soudah, Dalgan, Al-Qaraa, Al-Hadba, Al-Sahab, and Wadi Al-Mahala. Its population reached (2801481) people in 1427 AH.
The city of Hail is located west of Wadi Al-Adaira, and is known as Wadi Hail on a latitude of 27 degrees and 30 minutes north, and a longitude of 41 degrees and 43 minutes east, and it is the seat of the Emirate of Hail Region.
The Hail region is one of the cultural attractions and is famous for a number of ancient monuments such as ancient castles and palaces such as: Yatab, Janine, Fid, Jabal Habashi, Al-Tha'ilbi, and it has drawings and Thamudic writings and tombs in Dhaif, and ships. Its population reached (267005) people in 1425 AH.
The city of Al-Baha is located in the southwestern part of the Kingdom, on a latitude of 20 degrees and 15 minutes and a longitude of 41 degrees and 28 minutes, and it is the seat of the Emirate of Al-Baha Region.It is a
tourist attraction with a calm nature, high mountains, dense forests, and a moderate atmosphere, with a range of crops available for the fertility of its land, and the number of its markets is twenty-five markets during six days a week except Friday. Its population reached (85212) people in 1425 AH.
The city of Buraydah is located in the center of the Arabian Peninsula, on the left edge of the course of Wadi Ramla on a latitude of 26 degrees and two minutes, and a longitude of 43 degrees and 58 minutes, and it is the headquarters of the Emirate of Qassim Province and is famous for agriculture, and it has King Fahd Specialist Hospital, Buraidah Water Tower, King Khalid Cultural Center, Prince Abdullah bin Abdulaziz Sports City, and various factories that produce cement, bricks, sponges, furniture, clay bricks and plastic. Its population reached (378422) people in 1425 AH.
Tabuk The city of Tabuk is
located in the northwest of the Kingdom, on a latitude of 36 degrees, 65 minutes and a longitude of 28 degrees, and 49 minutes, and it is the seat of the Emirate of Tabuk Region.
Tabuk is one of the agricultural cities, where there are many important agricultural projects that produce wheat, fruit, chicken and eggs, famous for growing and exporting flowers, there are many Islamic monuments, including the Al-Tawbah Mosque, where the Prophet, may God bless him and grant him peace, prayed before the Battle of Tabuk. Its population reached (441351) people in 1425 AH.
Jazan The city of Jazan is located in the south of the Kingdom on
a latitude of 16 degrees and 53 minutes and a longitude of 42 degrees and 33 minutes, and it is the headquarters of the Jazan region, and the region includes the Jazan Valley Dam of the largest dams in the Kingdom, with a storage capacity of 7 million cubic meters, and it is rich in agricultural production, and it also includes ancient historical landmarks such as the city of Ather and Abu Arish Castle. It has the port of Jazan, on the Red Sea coast, the third port of the Kingdom in terms of capacity, and the main gateway for imports of the southwestern part of the Kingdom. Its population reached (100694) people in 1425 AH.
The city of Dammam is located in the Eastern Province on a latitude of 26 degrees and 30 minutes and a longitude of 50 degrees and 6 minutes, and it is the seat of the Emirate of the Eastern Province.
The area is famous for its oil fields, Saudi Aramco headquarters, Jubail Industrial City, King Abdulaziz Sea Port, Saudi Arabian Railways Corporation, King Fahd Park, King Fahd International Airport, Dammam Corniche, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, King Faisal University, and the Institute of Aviation Force. Its population reached (744631) people in 1425 AH.
Sakaka The city of
Sakaka is located at the northern end of the Great Nafud, on a latitude of 29 degrees and 59 minutes and a longitude of 40 degrees and 12 minutes, and it is the seat of the Emirate of Al-Jawf Region, an agricultural city that is one of the richest regions of the Kingdom with historical monuments, representing various historical eras such as Zaabal Fort, Tell Al-Saai, Al-Rajajil Columns, Al-Tuwair Castle, Mard Castle, and Omar Ibn Al-Khattab Mosque (may God be pleased with him). Its population reached (196503) people in 1425 AH.
city of Arar is located in the northern border region on a latitude of 30 degrees and a longitude of 41 and is the seat of the Emirate of the Northern Borders Region, and it is a city of geographical importance being an important crossroads Iraq Al-Jawf Medina Qurayyat Hafr Al-Batin The Tapline pipeline passes through. It has a population of 166428.
Najran The city of Najran is
located in the southwest of the Kingdom, on a latitude of 17 degrees and 37 minutes and a longitude of 44 degrees and 26 minutes, and it is the seat of the Emirate of Najran Province.It is famous
for agriculture, and it has the Wadi Najran Dam, which is one of the largest dams built in the Kingdom with a storage capacity of 85 million cubic meters, in which palm trees abound, and its most famous monuments are the groove area mentioned in the Holy Quran. Its population reached (246,880) people in 1425 AH.
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